eMERGE GHC/University of Washington Group

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as an abnormality of kidney structure or function present for longer than 3 months. CKD can occur as a result of heterogeneous disorders affecting the kidney. In the United States, an estimated 13.6% of adults have CKD. Notably, adjusted mortality rates are higher for patients with CKD than those without, and rates increase with CKD stage. The purpose of this algorithm is to enable accurate CKD diagnosis and staging based on EHR data.

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Clostridium Difficile Colitis

Clostridium difficile, also known as "C. diff," is a species of bacteria that causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria in the gut have been wiped out by antibiotics (see Wikipedia entry). In rare cases a C. diff infection can progress to toxic megacolon which can be life-threatening. In a very small percentage of the adult population C. difficile bacteria naturally reside in the gut. Other people accidentally ingest spores of the bacteria while patients in a hospital or nursing home.

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Depression

Depression accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide and risk of experiencing it may have a genetic component.  Depressive disorders manifest along a gradient from mild to severe.[1]  Electronic health record (EHR) data linked to large, multi-site biobanks[2] facilitate exploration of the genetic component of depression.

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Herpes Zoster

Herpes zoster, also known as zoster or shingles, is caused by a virus called varicella zoster virus (VZV). Initial infection with the virus causes chickenpox. After chickenpox resolves the virus continues to resides in certain nerve cells. It may remain latent for many years. It may also re-activate, many years later, and cause shingles which is a painful skin rash. How the virus remains latent in the body is not well understood.

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White Blood Cell Indices

Genetic variation that predicts white blood count (WBC) and it differential, a marker of the health of the immune system.

WBC is unique among the identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it has been routinely measured in healthy patients in an unbiased way for the duration of the electronic medical record data. 

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