Migraine is the most common recurrent headache syndrome in children in which 4-10% of school age children may be affected (1). It is characterized by episodes of headache pain that may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and light and sound sensitivity. Migraine occurs at all ages and may even begin in infancy as represented by intermittent colic (1). The genes for familial hemiplegic migraine have been identified. For migraine without aura and migraine with aura population and twin studies have been consistent with the genetic basis of migraine, but no consistent genetic etiology has been established. Both genetic and environmental factors are important (2). The International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-3) is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of migraine, especially for research purposes. ICHD-3 notes that certain features of migraine in children may differ from typical features in adults for example it is often bilateral in children, and unilateral pain usually emerges in late adolescence or early adulthood and childhood migraines may be shorter in duration. ICHD-3 criteria require at least five attacks to fulfill the diagnosis of migraine.
Migraine algorithm does not exclude adults. (June 2017)